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澳门正规博彩十大网站:为什么加拿大正在成为人工智能研发的中心?美国研发杂志刊文

时间:2018/5/15 12:42:28  作者:  来源:  浏览:0  评论:0
内容摘要:rdmag.com/article/2017/07/why-canada-becoming-hub-ai-research?platform=hootsuite美国研发杂志刊文,为什么加拿大正在成为人工智能研发的中心?为什么加拿大正在成为人工智能研究的中心人工智能(AI)可能成为...


rdmag.com/article/2017/07/why-canada-becoming-hub-ai-research?platform=hootsuite

美国研发杂志刊文,为什么加拿大正在成为人工智能研发的中心?
为什么加拿大正在成为人工智能研究的中心人工智能(AI)可能成为多个行业的游戏规则改变者。强大的算法或许就能支持人们,快速从海量信息数据中提取出可量化的内容,比如,强化无人车导航系统,医生诊断,简化农作物管理和保护等任务。
像IBM和微软这样的美国科技巨头正在探索AI可能产生最大影响力的商业机会,但这种研发类型的生态系统已经在加拿大蓬勃发展。
美国北方的邻居已经在人工智能方面创造了几个先驱者
着名的计算机科学家Geoffrey Hinton博士和Yoshua Bengio博士都是从多伦多开始他们的职业生涯,而这些,又为很多以AI为导向的领域奠定了发展基础。注,Yann LeCun(法国人)、Geoffrey Hinton(英国人)和Yoshua Bengio(加拿大人)被称为全球深度学习三巨头,是深度学习领域最顶级的三位学者。Hinton是Google的工程学家,也是多伦多大学计算机科学荣誉教授,被认为是训练多层神经网络的先驱,这种计算技术为AI提供了更高的识别能力。
通过语音识别在Google上搜索图片以及在智能手机上口述文字,部分取决于Hinton的想法带来的技术。
Bengio是麦吉尔大学的毕业生,是加拿大另一位着名的深度学习专家。他是蒙特利尔学习算法研究所的负责人,最近签约成为微软人工智能咨询顾问。
加拿大的历史产生了最着名的人工智能研究专家,由贾斯汀特鲁多总理领导的政府也希望尽可能利用这些突破。为此,他们发起了一项旨在帮助AI行业在该国蓬勃发展的全面举措。
Vector Institute向量研究所是安大略省的一家独立的非营利机构,是为了响应这一举措而创立的。
该组织从加拿大政府和加拿大企业收到估计1.5亿美元的投资。
由多伦多大学计算机科学教授兼加拿大高级研究院高级研究员的研究总监Richard Zemel领导,Vector Institute致力于在加拿大建立并维持基于AI的创新,增长和生产力。
在接受研发杂志采访时, Zemel讨论了Vector Institute将采取的具体战略,以利用这些机会以及他看到的行业向前发展的方向。  
研发杂志:Vector Institute将在这个蓬勃发展的领域扮演什么角色?
Richard Zemel: “今年3月份Vector Institute的成立,是对加拿大成为全球人工智能领导者的重要机遇的回应。我们知道加拿大在多伦多,蒙特利尔和埃德蒙顿等城市产生了一些机器学习和深度学习方面最优秀,最聪明的毕业生。我们也知道,我们需要提高加拿大公司,无论是大公司还是小公司对人工智能变革潜力的认识。因此,这就是我们在这里的原因——在加拿大的知识,创新和使用人工智能方面推动卓越领导力,促进经济发展,提高加拿大人的生活质量。
Vector Institute将通过关注深度学习和机器学习的变革潜力,带领安大略省致力于在加拿大建立和维持基于人工智能的创新,增长和生产力。它将通过与加拿大工业和公共机构的合作,确保他们拥有人才,技能和资源,成为人工智能的最佳用户。Vector Institute也将支持加拿大的创新集群,并帮助加拿大的初创企业成长为全球领导者。Vector矢量使命的一个重要组成部分是吸引专注于卓越研究的全球人才; 我们的研究人员和学术合作伙伴将成为充满活力的创新型问题解决者社区的一员,在好奇心驱动和应用研究两方面开展跨学科工作。“
研发杂志:什么因素使得加拿大成为人工智能研究的中心?Richard Zemel: “加拿大拥有人工智能领域一些最聪明的人才,30多年来,它一直处于AI广泛领域的学术前沿。特别是在机器学习,强化学习和深度学习领域。随着学术机构,私营公司和政府的支持和兴趣不断增加,加拿大正迅速成为人工智能研究的全球中心。
已经签约为Vector Institute赞助商的公司的数量和种类表明业界了解AI的变革潜力。我们还拥有大量初创公司和多家企业孵化器,并对开发,应用和商业化AI技术感兴趣。最近来自优步、Google 大脑和 DeepMind 的关于扩大其在加拿大的研究能力的声明进一步证明, 加拿大正在成为AI研究的地方。
研发杂志:在人工智能的研究环境方面,加拿大和美国的区别是什么?
Richard Zemel: “作为矢量研究所的研究总监,我的首要任务是建立一支教师和研究科学家团队,他们将成为矢量研究所深入学习和机器学习的研究和先进教育的推动者。我们在多伦多拥有非常深厚的学习和机器学习专业人才库,我们的目标是在学术界和工业界建立和发展。加拿大有好奇心驱动研究的强大传统,在机器学习和深度学习领域尤其是NSERC( 加拿大自然科学与工程研究理事会)和CIFAR(CIFAR是由 Hinton 的两个学生 Alex Krizhevsky、Ilya Sutskever收集的一个用于普适物体识别的数据集。CIFAR是加拿大政府牵头投资的一个先进科学项目研究所。)一直是研究发展的强大推动者。Vector的一个关键目标是继续并建立在这个肥沃的研究环境上。
在创建向量研究所时, 对我和团队来说, 在我们的运营模式中建立灵活性是非常重要的。Vector作为一个独立的非营利机构的优势意味着我们的研究人员不一定会面临必须在学术界工作还是与工业界合作之间作出决定。向量研究人员将能够与私营部门合作开展项目 - 只要他们的研究和学术义务得到满足。这种灵活性,加上不断增加的顶尖人才库,使其成为Vector Institute的核心目标之一,这将使加拿大的公司成为AI技术的最佳采用者。
这将使Vector,多伦多和加拿大成为顶尖人才和行业聚集的地方,创造一个充满活力和持久的生态系统。
Vector Institute是对挑战和机遇的回应。众所周知,加拿大 - 像多伦多,蒙特利尔和埃德蒙顿这样的城市 - 生产世界一流的机器学习人才。多伦多大学的学生继续在Google DeepMind,OpenAI,Apple,Facebook和Microsoft的AI实验室工作。
随着Vector Institute的推出,我认为我们正处于一个转折点。自Vector成立以来,优步已宣布将在Raquel Urtasun(人工智能研究员兼多伦多大学副教授)的带领下开设其先进技术集团的新分支。同时,Google 宣布推出Google Brain Toronto,DeepMind宣布在埃德蒙顿开设首家国际AI研究办公室。
研发杂志:可以详细说明人工智能研究的哪些特定领域最有希望产生成果,以及为什么吗?(如计算机视觉、神经网络等)。
Richard Zemel: “目前已经在诸如机器视觉(自动驾驶),语言(语音助手自动语音识别,机器翻译),和推荐系统等领域取得很多成功。其他进展已经成熟的领域包括医疗保健和机器人。所有这些领域都有丰富的数据,这使得他们可以检验机器学习方法。在不久的将来我们可能会看到进展的其他领域包括自动化药物和制造设计以及教育。这些案例的进步一直是,而且将会受到研究进展,学习算法,优化和硬件的推动。”
赞助Vector Institute的公司可以让我们了解我们可以期待AI进步产生影响的情况。超过30家公司在十年内承诺投入超过8500万美元的资金来支持Vector Institute,代表金融,保险,教育,零售,先进制造业,建筑和交通等各个行业,这也说明了加拿大深度学习和机器学习的变革潜力。
Vector的赞助商包括几家初创公司和扩展公司,我们还建立了一个咨询委员会,为所有初创公司和规模扩大公司在研究所内开展合作和创造机会。“
研发杂志:Vector Institute位于多伦多,但像Google Deepmind这样的公司正在阿尔伯塔开设一个新的研究实验室。各个机构是否会一起工作,还是每个省都有自己的专门研究网络?
Richard Zemel: “是的。Vector将与构成泛加拿大人工智能生态系统的其他组织合作,包括学术机构,孵化器,加速器,初创企业,规模扩大的公司和已建立的公司。
目前有些地区的不同研究小组具有显着的优势,如阿尔伯达省的强化学习,蒙特利尔的对话系统和多伦多的统计模型。但是这些优势重叠很多,而且这个领域正在迅速发展,所以我期待着很多交叉融合和协同效应的涌现。Powerful algorithms may soon be able to quickly sift through reams of data and information, delivering quantifiable insights for tasks such as enhancing guidance systems for self-driving cars, assisting physicians in diagnosing patients, or helping farmers implement plans that simplify the management and protection of their crops.Technology giants in the U.S. like IBM and Microsoft are exploring business opportunities where A.I. could have the most impact, but an ecosystem for this type of R&D is already thriving in Canada.Our neighbor to the north has produced several pioneers in A.I.Prominent computer scientists like Geoffrey Hinton, Ph.D., and Yoshua Bengio, Ph.D., started their careers in Toronto laying the groundwork for various A.I. oriented fields.Hinton, an engineering fellow at Google and professor emeritus of computer science at the University of Toronto, is considered a pioneer in training neural networks with multiple layers, a computing technique that provides A.I. with greater recognition capabilities.Searching for a picture on Google as well as dictating text on your smartphone via voice recognition are advancements made possible in part on technology derived from Hinton’s ideas.Bengio, a graduate of McGill University, is another noted expert in deep learning coming out of Canada. He is the head of the Montreal Institute for Learning Algorithms and recently signed on as an adviser to Microsoft on its artificial intelligence efforts.In addition to Canada’s history of producing some of the most well-known experts in A.I. research, the government— under Prime Minister Justin Trudeau—has a desire to capitalize on these breakthroughs as much as possible.  To do this, they have launched a comprehensive initiative designed to help the A.I. industry flourish within the country.The Vector Institute, an independent not-for-profit institution based in Ontario, was created as a response to this initiative.The organization receives an estimated $150 million investment from both the Canadian government and as well as Canadian businesses.Lead by research director Richard Zemel, a professor of computer science at the University of Toronto and Senior Fellow at the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, the Vector Institute focuses on building and sustaining AI-based innovation, growth, and productivity in Canada.In an interview with R&D Magazine, Zemel discussed the specific strategy the Vector Institute will implement to take advantage of these opportunities as well as where he sees the industry moving going forward.  R&D Magazine: Describe what role the Vector Institute will play in this burgeoning field?
The Vector Institute will lead Ontario’s efforts to build and sustain AI-based innovation, growth and productivity in Canada by focusing on the transformative potential of deep learning and machine learning. It will do so by working with Canadian industry and public institutions to ensure that they have the people, skills and resources to be best in class users of artificial intelligence. The Vector Institute will also support Canada’s innovation clusters and help start-ups grow to become Canadian-based global leaders. An essential component of Vector’s mission is to attract global talent focused on research excellence; our researchers and academic partners will be part of a vibrant community of innovative problem-solvers, working across disciplines on both curiosity-driven and applied research.”Richard Zemel: “The launch of the Vector Institute in March this year was a response to a significant opportunity to make Canada a global leader in artificial intelligence.  We know that Canada produces some of the best and brightest graduates in machine learning and deep learning, from cities like Toronto, Montreal, and Edmonton. We also know that we need to increase awareness among companies in Canada, both large and small, of the transformative potential of artificial intelligence. So that’s why we’re here –to drive excellence and leadership in Canada’s knowledge, creation, and use of artificial intelligence to foster economic growth and improve the lives of Canadians.
R&D Magazine: What elements are making Canada become a hub for artificial intelligence research?Richard Zemel: “Canada is home to some of the brightest minds in the field of artificial intelligence; it has been at the academic forefront of the broad field of AI for over 30 years. Specifically in the areas of machine learning, reinforcement learning and deep learning, leading researchers and professors have been graduating some of the most promising talent out of cities like Toronto, Montreal and Edmonton.Canada is fast becoming a global hub for artificial intelligence research as support and interest grow among academic institutions, private companies, and governments.The number and variety of companies that have signed on as sponsors of the Vector Institute is an indication that industry understands the transformative potential of AI.We also have a large number of start-up companies – and several business incubators – with an interest in developing, applying and commercializing AI technology.Recent announcements from Uber, Google Brain, and DeepMind to expand their research capacity in Canada are further evidence that Canada is emerging as the place to do AI research, and also to apply it.And what we hear from many students, researchers and scientists is that they want to live in Canada – our diversity, public healthcare, education system and quality of life are all very appealing.We are tremendously excited to work with industry, start-ups and institutions to build and sustain Canada’s AI ecosystem.”R&D Magazine: How is Canada’s research environment for A.I. different from the U.S.? Are there specific resources available for scientists in the country that are not available in the U.S.?Richard Zemel: “As the Research Director for the Vector Institute, my first priority is to build out the team of faculty and research scientists who will be the drivers of research and advanced education in deep learning and machine learning at the Vector Institute. We have a very deep talent pool of deep learning and machine learning expertise here in Toronto, and our goal is to build on and expand that both in academia and in industry. Canada has a strong tradition of curiosity-driven research, and in the fields of machine learning and deep learning in particular NSERC and CIFAR have been strong contributors to the research developments. A key aim at Vector is to continue and build on this fertile research environment.We’ve had very positive conversations with many individuals currently based in leading institutions and labs around the world, and there is a lot of excitement and interest in Vector, and in the growing Canadian ecosystem. I’m excited to say that we’re getting ready to make multiple announcements on hiring top talent for Vector in the coming months.In creating the Vector Institute, it has been very important to me and the team to build flexibility into our operating model. The advantage of Vector being an independent, not-for-profit institution means that our researchers won’t necessarily be faced with having to decide between working in academia or working with industry.Vector researchers will be able to work on projects with the private sector – so long as their research and academic obligations are fulfilled. This flexibility, combined with growing the pool of top talent, lends itself to one of the Vector Institute’s core objectives, which is to enable companies in Canada to become best-in-class adopters of AI technology.It will make Vector, Toronto and Canada a place where top talent and industry converge to create a vibrant and lasting ecosystem.The Vector Institute is a response to a challenge and an opportunity. It’s well-known that Canada – with cities like Toronto, Montreal and Edmonton – produces world-class talent trained in machine learning. The University of Toronto’s students have gone on to lead and work in AI labs at Google DeepMind, OpenAI, Apple, Facebook and Microsoft.The challenge we face in Canada is that while our graduates are in high demand, there isn’t the ecosystem here in Canada that we would want to see around such talent, and Canadian firms lag behind their international counterparts in investments in innovation and research.But with the launch of the Vector Institute, I think we’re at a turning point. Since Vector’s launch, Uber has announced that it will open a new branch of its Advanced Technologies Group, lead by Raquel Urtasun. Meanwhile, Google announced the launch of Google Brain Toronto and DeepMind announced the opening of its first ever international AI research office in Edmonton.And I’ve heard from my own students and postdocs that they are deciding to stay in Canada because of the emerging AI ecosystem; while in the recent past these opportunities did not exist, they are very excited about the prospect of staying here to continue doing research and working with companies. And while travelling to conferences and summer schools recently I’ve heard a lot of interest from students elsewhere as well.Many of these individuals want to live in Canada – our diversity, public healthcare, education system and quality of life are all very appealing. And as we create meaningful opportunities for them to pursue careers here, they will either stay or come from abroad. And that’s what we plan to do.”R&D Magazine: Please elaborate on specific fields of A.I. research that could yield the most promising results and why (i.e. computer vision, neural networks etc)Richard Zemel: “Many of the current successes have been in areas such as machine vision (automated driving), language (automated speech recognition in voice assistants, machine translation), and recommender systems. Other areas that are ripe for advances include healthcare and robotics.  All of these areas have a wealth of data, which makes them amenable to machine learning methods. Other areas where we may see progress in the near future include automated drug and manufacturing design, and education. Progress in each of these cases has been and will be fueled by research advances, in learning algorithms, optimization, and hardware.”R&D Magazine: Please discuss specific industries that could benefit from the research that emerges from the organization. Also, are there any promising startups/companies in Canada working on novel projects?Richard Zemel: “It is early days for the Vector Institute, and at this stage it’s difficult to know exactly how Vector’s research will affect different sectors. Our first step towards our goal to drive research excellence is to recruit the faculty and research scientists who will undertake both curiosity-driven and applied research with Vector. That process is underway now.The list of companies that are sponsoring the Vector Institute (see the full list here: http://vectorinstitute.ai/#partners) can give us a sense of where we can expect AI advancements to have an impact. More than 30 companies  have committed a combined total of over $85 million over ten years to support the Vector Institute, representing sectors as diverse as finance, insurance, education, retail, advanced manufacturing, construction and transportation, reflecting the transformational potential of deep learning and machine learning in Canada.Vector’s sponsors include several start-up and scale-up companies and we have also established an advisory committee to collaborate and create opportunities within the Institute for all start-up and scale-up firms.”R&D Magazine: The Vector Institute is based in Toronto, but companies like Google Deepmind are opening a new research lab in Alberta. Will each institution work together with each other or will each province have their own specialized network of research? Richard Zemel: “Yes. Vector will collaborate with other organizations that make up the pan-Canadian AI ecosystem, including academic institutions, incubators, accelerators, start-ups, scale-ups and established companies. We believe the recent DeepMind announcement, and others like it, are good for the Canadian AI ecosystem as a whole.There are currently some areas in which different research groups have notable strength, such as reinforcement learning in Alberta, dialogue systems in Montreal, and statistical models in Toronto. But these strengths overlap considerably, and the field is rapidly evolving, so I expect a lot of cross-fertilization and synergies to emerge.Collaborating with other jurisdictions and organizations in Canada’s AI ecosystem will help Vector achieve its vision to drive excellence and leadership in Canada’s knowledge, creation and use of artificial intelligence to foster economic growth and improve the lives of Canadians.”

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